Photograph helps the world to know about History. Due to scientific discoveries beginning from Greek and Roman culture, ancient drawings and pictures, and in the later period photography has developed. Hence we should know about its birth which in turn helps us to know many things.
Photography has no beginning or end just as God and it is a Greek word which means 'WRITING WITH LIGHT', a technology, not developed by a single person. Due to continuous efforts by various intellectuals, it has attained a new height and growth and it will continue to develop.
CAMERA OBSCURA was equipment used from 11AD to 16AD; do draw pictures by taking trace. Most importantly it was used to draw natural sceneries on paper and clothes and this equipment was designed before the advent of photography.
During the year 1558 GIVOVANN BATTISTA DELLA PORTA wrote a book Natural Magic, in which he described about the structure of the camera and its principles. Ten years later in 1568 he fixed a lens in place of mere pin hole in the CAMERA OBSCURA. In addition, DANIELLO BAR BARO, a researcher designed replaceable lenses through which pictures were clearly caught on the screen. The relevant principle for this was initially developed by the intellect GIVOVANN and a camera was also used to trace the natural sceneries and immovable objects. There was great opposition from the cartoonists for this. To minimize the delay due to drawings, to satisfy the customers, to shorten the stay in a particular place this camera was useful.
Approximately 150 years later in 1725 JOHANN HEINRICH SCHULZE found out that the colour of silver nitrate and the chalk was changed due to sunlight only and not due to heat and same was ascertained that silver nitrate (silver metal) can be used. This is one of the most important made in the field of photography. He also created prints of drawings carved on mirror and SILHOUTTE pictures on papers polished with silver nitrate and silver chloride. But they did not last for longer periods.
In 1802 THOMAS WEDG WOOD and SIR HUMPHRY DAVY designed the method of taking prints by printing on chemical compounds instead of taking prints on paper using hand.
In 1816 JOSEPH NICEPHORE NIEPCE created a camera by fixing a simple lens in a jewel box which can be separated. He used it to create negative image. Further in the year 1826 he took a permanent photo, which is natural scenery in landscape. He took 8 hours to expose the photo.
In 1835 WILLIAM FOX TALBORT initially created positive images from negative. He was the first person who discovered the method to enlarge a photo. In 1884 he published a book with photographs. He also discovered the methods for creating permanent photographs in quicker period of time. He also discovered the positive and negative process methods that were in usage before the advent of Digital Photography and named it as Photogenic Drawing.
In 1837 LOUIS DAGOERRE discovered a new process of registering a photograph in a method called DAGOERRE TYPE and he subsequently obtained patent protection for it. He was the first person who pictured a man in a photograph.
In 1839 JOHN HERSCHEL explained the method of using hypo pine as a fixer agent on negatives and positives. He was the person who initially created glass negative. In 1839, he exhibited around 30 photographs created in a paper by pasting silver chloride and potassium iodide mixture in an exhibition held at Paris.
In 1840 PETZUAL created a lens which could be exclusively used of photography and before this discovery lenses created for various reasons were used in cameras.
In 1841 WILLIAM TALBORT obtained patent for COLOTYPE PROCESSING and it is the beginning for modern photography. During those periods many learnt the techniques and started out PORTRAIT studios. In 1843, the first black and white film processing laboratory TALBOT started.
In 1851 FREDERICK SCOTT ARCHER introduced a new method called COLLEDION PROCESS. In 1853 Photographic Society of London was inaugurated for amateur and professional photographers. ADOCPHC EUGENE DISDERI discovered a camera which can revolve around and took a photograph. The most surprising factor was he printed that particular photograph in an album paper.
During this period a studio called New York Gallery captured around 500 photographs on daily basis and delivered each one in less than 30 minutes which really took everyone by surprise. The year after 1857 can be considered as a beginning of growth in photography industry. An exhibition with more than 500 photographs was exhibited at Manchester which again took everyone in surprise because during those days the number 500 was a big achievement.
In 1858 NADAR, a photographer shot pictures of earth, by flying from hot air balloon and it was the first aerial photography. In 1861 JAMES CLERK MAXWELL took photographs using DARTON ribbon and with RGB (Red, Green and Blue) colours. The same year 1861, BRADY shot several pictures at war front which laid foundation for a new segment called WAR PHOTOGRAPHY. Many followed his footsteps and this segment became popular.
In 1866 HUGO ADOLPH STEINI HEIL from Munich and HENTRY DALL MEYER discovered RAPID RECTILINEAR type lens with SPERICAL ATERRATIONS which can be used in cameras. They were technically superior to the lenses that were used in the previous period because the edges were out of focus when the picture was shot with older lenses.
In 1868 LOUIS DUCOS DU HAURON, a photographer obtained patent protection for subtractive colour photography method. In 1871 RICHARD MADDOX invented gelatin emulsion which can be pasted on the film. It was used to deduct crimes and to prove guilt of criminals which in turn acted as a starting point for FORENSIC PHOTOGRAPHY. In 1872 EDWARD MUYBRIDGE shot pictures of human beings and creatures when they are at move.
In 1873 HARMON found that by adding more colours on mirror plate, new combination of colours can be obtained and until to this pictures are purely based on blue colour.
In 1879 GEORGE EASTMAN invented dry plates and obtained patent protection for it which in turn used as an alternative to glass plates used earlier. He also invented a device on which a roll could be rolled over. In 1888 the first KODAK camera was launched with the roll mechanism inherited in it through which 100 exposures can be made. In 1900 pocket Kodak cameras were introduced by Eastman Laboratories and later Brownica camera, a simple box type camera was introduced which was popular in the market till 1930.
In 1936 the first 35mm SLR (Single Lens Reflection) camera was introduced and in 1950 the same was improved by adding a method called pentaprism for better focusing. In 1947 Dr. EDWINLAND introduced Polaroid Instant Picture Process and in 1963 he introduced instant colour pictures. In 1980 AUTO FOCUS camera was introduced and thus photography becomes easy for any individual.